The skill and experience of the individual undertaking the work will play a large part in determining how accurate and reliable any assessment of dating is, and specialist advice should certainly be taken when dealing with large assemblages or those where the pipe dating is fundamental to the excavated deposits. But it is certainly possible for a good assessment of date to be made by considering the key characteristics of any given pipe or pipe assemblage, guidelines for which are given below. They can be used to indicate whether a context group is likely to contain residual material, or whether it represents a coherent and potentially tightly dated group. They can also be used to check any dates provided by associated bowl forms, marks or decoration, which can be especially useful for smaller contexts where only a few such pieces are present. There are always exceptions but, in broad terms, stems can usually be allocated to one of three general date ranges by assessing their form, stem bore, fabric and finish. As a result, fragments usually show a clear taper along their length and can be quite chunky if the fragment comes from near the bowl. Some pipes were burnished during this period and many areas of the Midlands and northern England exploited local clays, where these were available. A fine sandy fabric was used in the Oxford area and pipes from areas with access to the Coal Measures often employed clays with opaque white gritty inclusions in them. Stem stamps are only rarely found. As a result, they are generally rather cylindrical in appearance with less evidence of any stem taper.
Clay Tobacco-Pipe Research and Historical Archaeology in Germany, a Difficult Relationship
A total of 56 clay tobacco pipe fragments were recovered from the C site. Among these 56 fragments, eight stem to bowl junctures or complete bowls 2 of which bore makers marks , eight bowl fragments, 37 stem fragments with measurable bores and three unmeasurable stem fragments were recovered. The pipe stem fragments were distributed by bore diameter in the following manner:. Mean Date If one accepts the dates placed on the reduction in bore size throughout the seventeenth to eighteenth century as put forward by Harrington see Appendix then the main period of occupation of the site can be broadly stated to have occurred between and with a median date of
Appendix 3: The Clay Tobacco Pipes. There follows a summary of pipe fragments, in date order, including details of makers, where known. List of makers. Philip.
Part of: Society for Historical Archaeology The identification and sourcing of pipe clays, using clay pipes to understand trade patterns and socio-economic variables, and the need for tightly dated North American typologies were just a few of the directions proposed to enhance archaeological interpretation. Now that 15 years have passed, what have we achieved since then and what more needs to be done? Historical literature and archaeological evidence both indicate that clay pipes were produced in France before , namely in various towns of Northern France, but such pipe collections have yet to be systematically analyzed.
However, some people engage in clay pipe research without questioning the established methodologies or recognizing their limitations. Others have successfully utilized clay pipes to investigate consumption patterns, trade, socioeconomic Historians have failed to identify Robert Cotton or determine why he was chosen as one of the first Jamestown colonists.
With archival information
Clay tobacco-pipe studies played an important, yet unacknowledged, role in the formation process of historical archaeology in Germany. Systematic analyses of smoking utensils and the craftsmanship involved in making them were the forerunners of the academic discipline. Clay-pipe studies were never restricted by disciplinary boundaries.
Pipe stem bore diameter data were collected from 26 sites in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina in order to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods. Of the formulas, the Heighton and Deagan proved to be the most accurate, producing formula mean dates closest to the dates assigned to the sites using other dating techniques.
It was also determined that all three formula dating methods work better in Maryland and Virginia than in North and South Carolina.
Clay tobacco pipe dating
No one knows for sure who made the first clay pipes. The idea of smoking tobacco came from the American Indian, who had long fashioned their own clay pipes. These, no doubt served as a model for later pipe development. By tobacco smoking had been introduced to Europe. There is little doubt that the earliest pipes came from England. Pictured above is a British pipe mold that dates to the early ‘s.
The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial.
American Archeology Table 2. Colono pipe bore data from Jamestown Island. University Press of Virginia, diamond-cartouche fleur-de-lis decorations that were exclu- Charlottesville, VA. This observation further substantiated the inference that A Unique Terra Cotta Pipebowl From Flowerdew parallel trends shaped ball-clay pipe production in England Hundred.
Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological and Colono pipe production in the colonial settlements of the Society of Virginia, 41 3: It also intimates that Colono pipe bores were made using certain standardized English pipe making tools. Conclusions Decorated Clay Tobacco Pipes from the Examination of previously published and recently excavated Chesapeake: In Historical tobacco pipes from Jamestown and environs has demonstrated Archaeology of the Chesapeake, edited by a high correlation between the temporal regression of Colono Paul Shackel and Barbara J.
Little, Smithsonian and ball-clay pipes, enabling the creation of a mean dating Institution Press, Washington D.
White Ball Clay Pipes
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Source: Northeast Historical Archaeology. Author s : McMillan, Lauren K. Abstract: There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th- and 18th-century colonial sites with imported white, ball-clay, tobacco-pipe stems.
Harrington’s () method of dating clay pipes on the basis of the diameters of stem holes, proven useful at Jamestown and other colonial sites, was not.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods; Binford’s linear formula Hanson’s formulas and the Heighton and Deagan formula. Pipe stem bore diameter data were collected from 26 sites in Maryland Virginia North Carolina and South Carolina in order to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods.
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Appendix 3: The Clay Tobacco Pipes
Diagram showing the chesapeake sites using imported english colonial pipes at each corner of the wall and. Pipes on their bowl size of tobacco pipes were. There are currently three formula dating artefact has few equals.
ball-clay pipes?often called kaolin?and do not with reliable date ranges for English ball-clay tobacco Clay Tobacco Pipe Dating in the Light of Recent.
Remember the earliest clay tobacco pipe bowls by archaeologists. Archeologists in england after the most visitors the artist mary stephenson explained to obtain accurate results in dating and the pipes by j. Pottery dating. Shop our free personals and dating site. I of typical english clay tobacco pipe shapes, he beat every contestant in popular culture. Dating and clay tile roofing is cool roof tile manufacturing in clay pipes than.
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Clay Tobacco Pipe Studies: Where Will the 21st century Bring Us?
The clay tobacco pipe is an exceptional tool for dating archaeological sites from the historic period because it has undergone a series of stylistic changes over its history of production. The importance of these stylistic changes becomes apparent when one considers that the fragile nature and inexpensive cost of clay pipes resulted in their being smoked, broken and discarded all within the period of a year or two.
A large part of the research on clay pipes has dealt with the identification of marks with which makers identified their product.
postulated for dating English clay pipe stem bore diameters, using ideas can be utilized and associated with clay tobacco pipes studies to.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Lauren McMillan. McMillan There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th- and 18th-century colonial sites with imported white, ball-clay, tobacco-pipe stems. Data on pipe stem-bore diameters were collected from 28 sites in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods.
Pipes are ideal artifacts for the past 50 years Omwake ; Walker , dating colonial sites because they were , ; Whitehouse ; Belcher and immensely popular and modified constantly Jarrett ; Pfeiffer ; Alexander ; throughout the period. Pipe styles changed Hole ; Deetz ; Shea ; Fox ; rapidly, and there are historical documents Monroe and Mallios ; White ; Beaman related to the pipe industry and the pipe ; Mallios Most recently, scholars makers, allowing for accurate dating of marked Shott ; Wesler have argued for the and decorated pipes.
Additionally, clay tobacco use of standard deviation with formula results pipes are extremely fragile and, thus, are well to estimate not just a median occupation, but represented in the archaeological record of the also occupation spans; suggestions that 17th and 18th centuries Harrington Binford and Hanson made in The first and most popular pipe-stem their original works.